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Dictionary Of The Fungi



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Dictionary of the Fungi



If you have isolated a culture, its features are usually included in a separate paragraph. For some fungi, colony characters are described first; for others, this information follows the morphological description. At a minimum, give the growth rates on a specified medium and explain the temperature and light regime, and give a general impression of the colour and texture of the colonies. If the fungus sporulates in culture, it can be very helpful to compare the sizes and shapes of the microscopic structures to what occurred on the natural specimen. The detail employed in culture descriptions varies considerably from one taxonomic group to another, and you should consult published descriptions for the group you are working with.


With the collaboration of several colleagues at the International Mycological Institute, founded in 1920 and considered to be one of the most important Centers of Mycological Research in the world, D.L. Hawksworth, P.M. Kirk, B.C. Sutton and D.N. Pegler have just published the 8th edition (1995) of a classical work, i.e.,The Dictionary of Fungi of Ainsworth & Bisby, dedicated to Geoffrey C. Ainsworth on the occasion of his ninetieth birthday. This dictionary has been devoted to microscopic fungi in general and to mushrooms, yeasts and water molds for 52 years. This edition is the first to accept the distribution of fungi into three kingdoms of eukaryotic cells: Chromista, Fungi and Protozoa. This edition has also abandoned the Deuteromycetes, which are now denoted mitosporic fungi. Each entry is listed in alphabetical order and described in detail. Keys for the families in the Fungi Kingdom follow. This dictionary does not need any praise since it is a classical book in the area of Mycology. Collaborators from all over the world, distinguished Latinists, specialists in fossil fungi, soil fungi and seed fungi, in phenomena of biotransformation and physiology and nutrition of fungi, in mycotoxins, in the conservation of these agents, and in medical and veterinary Mycology have collaborated to this edition, an indispensable guide for all researchers who work in the fascinating area of Mycology.


This is a paperback version of the 2008 edition of The Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th Edition This 10th edition, of the acclaimed reference work, has more than 21,000 entries, and provides the most complete listing available of generic names of fungi, their families and orders, their attributes and descriptive terms. For each genus, the authority, the date of publication, status, systematic position, number of accepted species, distribution, and key references are given. Diagnoses of families and details of orders and higher categories are included for all groups of fungi. In addition, there are biographic notes, information on well-known metabolites and mycotoxins, and concise accounts of almost all pure and applied aspects of the subject (including citations of important literature). To buy this book in Australia or New Zealand, please contact CSIRO press


This is a paperback version of the 10th edition of the "Dictionary of the Fungi", which was published in 2008. The 10th edition of this acclaimed reference work has more than 21,000 entries, and provides the most complete listing available of generic names of fungi, their families and orders, their attributes and descriptive terms. For each genus, the authority, the date of publication, status, systematic position, number of accepted species, distribution, and key references are given. Diagnoses of families and details of orders and higher categories are included for all groups of fungi. In addition, there are biographic notes, information on well-known metabolites and mycotoxins, and concise accounts of almost all pure and applied aspects of the subject (including citations of important literature).


None of us can afford not to have a copy of this book at arm's length. Students deserve a copy in their laboratories. In summary: order it now. (Richard P Korf, Plant Pathology Herbarium, Cornell University, US) "The Dictionary of the Fungi" is surely one of the most indispensable of all mycological publications - every student of the fungi should own, or have access to, a copy of the most recent edition." (Bryce Kendrick, Mycologist, Feb 2003)"


All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.


Penicillium are cosmopolitan, predominant in regions of temperate climate. Penicillia figure among the most common types of fungi isolated form the environment. Of the approximately 150 recognized species, some are frequently implicated in the deterioration of food products where they may produce mycotoxins. Other species are producers of penicillin. Infections with P. marneffei are primarily acquired in mountainous provinces of Northern Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, and Southeastern China.


Ancient Fungi - The fossil remains of fungi exist probably back to the Pre-Cambrian Era (4,500 million years ago) but not unquestionably identified. The sure identification dates to the Devonian Era (405 million years ago) to present. By the Paleozoic Era (420 million years ago) all major fungal groups are present and can be placed in modern genera. Many entire life cycles of fungi can be reconstructed from fossil remains. Best preserved fungi are the epiphyllous. Some lichens are found in Amber deposits in Germany, however they are rare. Study on Lake Superior's North Shore Gunflint Chert, Los angeles County california, Eocene deposits of western Tennessee by Dilcher, and amber deposits in Germany are some of the studies. (Algae and Fungi Alexopoulos and Bold)


Ordinal position of the Acrospermaceae The ordinal position of the Acrospermaceae has never properly been settled. In the 9 th edition of Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi (Kirk et al. , 2001), and in the preceding edition, the family was listed as of uncertain affinity. In the 1 st and 2 nd editions it was allocated to Hysteriales or Dothideales; in the 3 rd to 5 th editions it was placed in the Dothideales; in the 6 th it was put in the Ostropales; in the 7 th , it was placed tentatively in the Clavicipitales. In all editions of Outline of the Ascomycetes in Systema Ascomycetum (eg Eriksson & Hawksworth, 1991), the Acrospermaceae is listed as a family of uncertain affinity. Brandriff (1936) speculated that it might be related to the Coryneliales or Pseudosphaeriales (ie Dothideales). The family was placed rather doubtfully in the Pyrenulales by Eriksson (1982). Sherwood (1977) discussed its ordinal position briefly, stating that it was not close to the Ostropales, but speculating a relationship with the Clavicipitales. Barr (1990) discussed its ordinal position in more detail, and placed it in the Xylariales. The Pyrenulales, Dothideales and Hysteriales (if different from the Dothideales) can all be rejected as potential homes for this family because their asci have two functional wall layers, with some sort of jack-inthe- box mechanism. As already noted, the Hysteriales typically open by an elongated apical split, and are black and very brittle. The Dothideales tend to have longitudinally asymmetrical ascospores constricted at the primary septum (Hawksworth et al. , 1995). The Pyrenulales are usually lichenized and their ascomata are often immersed and rather flattened in the horizontal plane (Hawksworth et al. , 1995). Recent work has shown that asci in the Coryneliales have two functional wall layers, of which the outer splits at a very early stage in development (Johnston & Minter, 1989), a form of development very unlike that of the Acrospermaceae. If Sherwood's (1977) widely accepted concept of the Ostropales is followed, it is hard to see how members of the Acrospermaceae, being largely superficial and perithecial, can be fitted into an order containing immersed discomycetous fungi. The Clavicipitales, synonymized with Hypocreales by Hawksworth et al. (1995), have asci with very characteristic thickened apices quite unlike those of the Acrospermaceae. Barr's (1990) placement of the family in the Xylariales, apparently on the basis of free ended paraphyses, is no more probable than any of the others (Eriksson & Hawksworth, 1991). 041b061a72


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