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Logika by Gajo Petrovic: A Comprehensive and Systematic Guide to Logic

Gajo Petrovic Logika Pdf Download

If you are interested in philosophy and logic, you might want to read Logika, a book written by Gajo Petrovic, one of the most prominent Yugoslav philosophers of the 20th century. In this article, we will tell you more about who is Gajo Petrovic, what is Logika, why is it important, and how to download it in PDF format.

Gajo Petrovic Logika Pdf Download

Who is Gajo Petrovic?

Gajo Petrovic was born in 1927 in Karlovac, Croatia. He studied philosophy at the University of Zagreb and later became a professor there. He was also a member of the Praxis group, a school of Marxist humanist thought that emerged in Yugoslavia in the 1960s. He wrote several books and articles on various topics such as dialectics, existentialism, phenomenology, Marxism, ethics, and logic. He died in 1993 in Rovinj, Croatia.


Gajo Petrovic was influenced by many philosophers such as Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty. He was also involved in political activism and social criticism. He advocated for democratic socialism, human rights, self-management, and workers' councils. He criticized Stalinism, dogmatism, bureaucracy, nationalism, and authoritarianism. He was one of the founders of the journal Praxis, which was banned by the Yugoslav authorities in 1975. He also participated in the Korcula Summer School, an international forum for philosophical debate.

What is Logika?

Logika is a textbook on logic that Gajo Petrovic wrote in 1971. It was published by Skolska knjiga in Zagreb. It covers both traditional and modern aspects of logic such as concepts, judgments, arguments, deductive and inductive reasoning, fallacies, methods of inquiry, and scientific knowledge. It also discusses some philosophical problems related to logic such as truth, validity, necessity, possibility, contradiction, identity, difference, etc.

Book summary

The book consists of two parts: The Forms of Thought and The Methods of Knowledge. The first part deals with the basic elements and structures of logical thinking such as concepts (pojmovi), judgments (sudovi), arguments (zakljuci), etc. The second part deals with the different ways and criteria of acquiring and presenting knowledge such as analysis (analiza), synthesis (sinteza), definition (definicija), division (divizija), deduction (dedukcija), induction (indukcija), analogy (analogija), etc.

Why is Logika important?

Logika is important for several reasons. First of all, it is a comprehensive and systematic introduction to logic that can help students and readers to develop their logical skills and abilities. Second, it is a valuable contribution to the history and philosophy of logic that reflects the author's original and critical perspective on various logical issues and controversies. Third, it is a relevant and influential work that has inspired and influenced many other philosophers and logicians in the region and beyond.

Relevance and impact

Logika is relevant for anyone who wants to learn more about logic and its applications in philosophy, science, mathematics, linguistics, computer science, etc. It is also relevant for anyone who wants to improve their critical thinking, problem-solving, argumentation, communication, and reasoning skills. Logika is impactful because it has been widely used as a textbook and a reference in many universities and schools in Yugoslavia and other countries. It has also been translated into several languages such as English, German, Russian, etc.

How to download Logika?

If you want to download Logika in PDF format, you have some options and methods to do so. Here are some of them:

Sources and methods

  • You can download Logika from the Internet Archive, a digital library that offers free access to millions of books, movies, music, etc. You can find Logika at this link: You can either read it online or download it as a PDF file.

  • You can also use a PDF converter tool that can convert any web page into a PDF file. For example, you can use this tool: You just need to enter the URL of the web page that contains Logika and click on the Convert to PDF button. Then you can download the PDF file.


In this article, we have given you some information about Gajo Petrovic, Logika, and how to download it in PDF format. We hope you have found it useful and interesting. If you want to learn more about Gajo Petrovic and his philosophy, you can read some of his other books such as Marx in the Mid-Twentieth Century, A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, Philosophy and Social Criticism, etc. You can also read some articles and essays by other philosophers and logicians who have commented on his work such as Mihailo Markovic, Rudi Supek, Predrag Krstic, etc.


  • What is the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning?

Deductive reasoning is a type of reasoning that goes from general premises to specific conclusions. For example, if all humans are mortal and Socrates is human, then Socrates is mortal. Deductive reasoning is valid if the premises are true and the conclusion follows logically from them.

Inductive reasoning is a type of reasoning that goes from specific observations to general conclusions. For example, if all the swans we have seen are white, then all swans are white. Inductive reasoning is not valid but only probable because the conclusion may be false even if the observations are true.

  • What is the difference between formal and informal logic?

Formal logic is a branch of logic that studies the form and structure of logical arguments without regard to their content or meaning. Formal logic uses symbols, rules, systems, and methods to analyze and evaluate the validity and soundness of arguments.

Informal logic is a branch of logic that studies the content and meaning of logical arguments in natural language. Informal logic uses criteria such as relevance, clarity, consistency, coherence, evidence, etc. to analyze and evaluate the quality and strength of arguments.

  • What is the difference between classical and modern logic?

What is the difference between classical and modern logic?

Classical logic and modern logic are two types of logic that differ in their origins, methods, and scope. Classical logic is the logic that was developed by ancient Greek philosophers such as Aristotle and Euclid. Modern logic is the logic that was developed by 19th and 20th century mathematicians and philosophers such as Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, etc.

Origins and methods

Classical logic originated from the study of natural language and its patterns of reasoning and argumentation. Classical logic used natural language symbols, syllogisms, diagrams, and axioms to express and analyze logical relations and inferences. Classical logic focused on the form and validity of arguments rather than their content or meaning.

Modern logic originated from the study of mathematics and its foundations and applications. Modern logic used artificial language symbols, formulas, systems, and methods to express and analyze logical relations and inferences. Modern logic focused on the content and soundness of arguments as well as their form and validity.

Scope and limitations

Classical logic had a limited scope and applicability. It could only deal with simple propositions, categorical syllogisms, modalities, etc. It could not deal with complex propositions, multiple quantifiers, relations, functions, etc. It also had some paradoxes and inconsistencies such as the liar paradox, the sorites paradox, etc.

Modern logic had a wider scope and applicability. It could deal with complex propositions, multiple quantifiers, relations, functions, etc. It could also deal with different types of logic such as propositional logic, predicate logic, modal logic, temporal logic, etc. It also solved some paradoxes and inconsistencies of classical logic by introducing new concepts such as truth-values, sets, types, etc.

This is the end of the article. I hope you have enjoyed reading it and learned something new about Gajo Petrovic Logika Pdf Download. If you have any questions or feedback, please let me know. 71b2f0854b


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