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Hardware [WORK]


Hardware: The Physical Components of a Computer System




Hardware is a term that refers to any physical part of a computer system that contains a circuit board, ICs, or other electronics. Hardware can be internal or external, depending on whether it is essential for the proper functioning of the computer or it is attached to enhance its functionality. Hardware works together with software, which is the set of written instructions that tell the hardware what to do and when to do it.




hardware


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In this article, we will explain what hardware is, what are the main types of hardware, and how hardware interacts with software to form a usable computing system.


What are the main types of hardware?




Hardware can be classified into two main categories: internal hardware and external hardware.


Internal hardware




Internal hardware are the components that are necessary for the computer to operate properly. They are usually located inside the computer case or integrated into the motherboard. Some of the most common internal hardware components are:


  • Motherboard. This is the main circuit board that connects all other hardware components and provides them with power and data. The motherboard also contains the CPU, which is the brain of the computer that processes and executes instructions from various programs.



  • RAM. This is the temporary memory storage that holds information that is currently being used by programs. RAM is volatile, which means that it loses its data when the computer is turned off.



  • Hard drive or SSD. These are the permanent storage devices that store data in different formats, such as programs, operating systems, files, photos, etc. Hard drives use magnetic disks to store data, while SSDs use flash memory chips.



  • Optical drive. This is a device that enables the computer to read and write data from non-magnetic external media, such as CDs or DVDs.



  • Heat sink. This is a device that draws heat away from components that generate a lot of heat, such as the CPU, to prevent them from overheating and malfunctioning.



  • GPU. This is a device that processes graphical data and displays it on the monitor. It can be integrated into the motherboard or installed as a separate card.



  • NIC. This is a device that enables the computer to connect to a network, such as the internet or a local area network. It can be integrated into the motherboard or installed as a separate card.



External hardware




External hardware are the components that are attached to the computer to add or enhance its functionality. They are usually connected to the computer through ports or cables. Some of the most common external hardware components are:


  • Monitor. This is a device that displays graphical output from the computer on a screen.



  • Keyboard. This is a device that allows the user to input text and commands into the computer.



  • Mouse. This is a device that allows the user to move a cursor and click on icons and buttons on the screen.



  • Speakers. These are devices that produce sound output from the computer.



  • Printer. This is a device that prints text and images from the computer on paper.



  • Scanner. This is a device that scans text and images from paper and converts them into digital data that can be stored on the computer.



  • Webcam. This is a device that captures video and images from the environment and sends them to the computer.



  • Microphone. This is a device that captures sound from the environment and sends it to the computer.



How does hardware interact with software?




Hardware and software are complementary parts of a computing system. Software consists of written instructions or programs that tell hardware what to do and when to do it. Hardware executes these instructions and produces useful output for the user or other programs.


The interaction between hardware and software can be described by using an example of opening a web browser on your computer:


  • You press a key on your keyboard to launch your web browser program. The keyboard sends an electrical signal to your motherboard, which passes it to your CPU.



  • The CPU fetches your web browser program from your hard drive or SSD and loads it into your RAM.



  • The CPU executes your web browser program by following its instructions and using your RAM as temporary storage.



  • Your web browser program sends requests to your NIC, which connects you to your network and sends data packets over the internet.



  • Your NIC receives data packets from your network and passes them to your CPU.



  • Your CPU processes these data packets and sends them to your GPU.



  • Your GPU renders these data packets as graphical output and sends them to your monitor.



  • Your monitor displays these graphical output on its screen for you to see.



Conclusion




Hardware is any physical component of a computer system that contains electronics. Hardware can be internal or external, depending on whether it is essential for the proper functioning of the computer or it is attached to enhance its functionality. Hardware works together with software, which is the set of written instructions that tell hardware what to do and when to do it. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system that can perform various tasks for users or other programs.


Conclusion




Hardware is any physical component of a computer system that contains electronics. Hardware can be internal or external, depending on whether it is essential for the proper functioning of the computer or it is attached to enhance its functionality. Hardware works together with software, which is the set of written instructions that tell hardware what to do and when to do it. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system that can perform various tasks for users or other programs. 6c859133af


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